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Armor Piercing History

Country/Region china
Company Tungsten Heavy Alloy CO,LTD
Categories Piercing Mill
Telephone +86-592-5129696, +86-592-5129595
ICP License Issued by the Chinese Ministry
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    Armor Piercing History

    First World WarEra
    Shot and shell used prior to and during World War I weregenerally cast from special chromium (stainless) steel that was melted in pots.They were forged into shape afterward and then thoroughly annealed, the corebored at the rear and the exterior turned up in a lathe. The projectiles werefinished in a similar manner to others described above. The final, or temperingtreatment, which gave the required hardness/toughness profile (differentialhardening) to the projectile body, was a closely guarded secret.
    The rearcavity of these projectiles was capable of receiving a small bursting charge ofabout 2% of the weight of the complete projectile; when this is used, theprojectile is called a shell, not a shot. The HE filling of the shell, whetherfused or unfused, had a tendency to explode on striking armor in excess of itsability to perforate.
    Second World War

    During WWII, projectiles usedhighly alloyed steels containing nickel-chromium-molybdenum, although inGermany, this had to be changed to a silicon-manganese-chromium-based alloy whenthose grades became scarce. The latter alloy, although able to be hardened tothe same level, was more brittle and had a tendency to shatter on strikinghighly sloped armor. The shattered shot lowered penetration, or resulted intotal penetration failure; for armor-piercing high-explosive (APHE) projectiles,this could result in premature detonation of the HE filling. Highly advanced andprecise methods of differentially hardening the projectile were developed duringthis period, especially by the German armament industry. The resultingprojectiles gradually change from high hardness (low toughness) at the head tohigh toughness (low hardness) at the rear and were much less likely to fail onimpact.

    British naval 15-inch cappedarmor-piercing shell, 1943
    APHE shells for tank guns,although used by most forces of this period, were not used by the British. Theonly British APHE projectile was the Shell AP, Mk1 for the 2 pdr anti-tank gunand this was dropped as it was found that the fuse tended to separate from thebody during penetration. Even when the fuse didn’t separate and the systemfunctioned correctly, damage to the interior was little different from the solidshot, and so did not warrant the additional time and cost of producing a shellversion. APHE projectiles of this period used a bursting charge of about 1-3% ofthe weight of the complete projectile, the filling detonated by a rear mounteddelay fuse. The explosive used in APHE projectiles needs to be highlyinsensitive to shock to prevent premature detonation. The US forces normallyused the Explosive D, otherwise known as ammonium picrate, for this purpose.Other combatant forces of the period used various explosives, suitabilitydesensitized (usually by the use of waxes mixed with the explosive).
    Dueto the increase in armor thickness during the conflict, the projectiles’ impactvelocity had to be increased to ensure perforation. At these higher velocities,the hardened tip of the shot or shell has to be protected from the initialimpact shock, or risk shattering. To raise the impact velocity and stop theshattering, they were initially fitted with soft steel penetrating caps. Thebest performance penetrating caps were not very aerodynamic, so an additionalballistic cap was later fitted to reduce drag. The resulting projectile typeswere given the names "Armor-Piercing Capped (APC)" and "Armor-Piercing CappedBallistic Capped (APCBC)".
    Early WWII-era uncapped AP projectiles firedfrom high-velocity guns were able to penetrate about twice their caliber atclose range (100 m). At longer ranges (500-1,000 m), this dropped 1.5-1.1calibers due to the poor ballistic shape and higher drag of the smaller-diameterearly projectiles. Later in the conflict, APCBC fired at close range (100 m)from large-caliber, high-velocity guns (75-128 mm) were able to penetrate a muchgreater thickness of armor in relation to their caliber (2.5 times) and also agreater thickness (2-1.75 times) at longer ranges (1,500-2,000m).
    Modern Day

    Armor-piercing shot
    Armor-piercing "shot" for cannons tendto combine some form of incendiary capability with that of armor-penetration.The incendiary compound is normally contained between the cap and penetratingnose, within a hollow at the rear, or a combination of both. If the projectilealso uses a tracer, the rear cavity is often used to house the tracer compound.For larger-caliber projectiles, the tracer may instead be contained within anextension of the rear sealing plug. Common abbreviations for solid(non-composite/hardcore) cannon-fired shot are; AP, AP-T, API and API-T; where Tstan
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